The 2012 World Congress on Advances in Civil, Environmental, and Materials Research) COEX, Seoul, Korea (26 – 30 August 2012)

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Introduction to Bioengineering

Biotechnology is any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific use.

Contributions include:
•virus resistant crops/animals
•diagnostics for detecting genetic diseases
•recombinant vaccine such as for malaria
•gene therapies
•genetic diversity for conservation
•microorganisms to clean up toxic waste (oil spills)

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Introduction to Bioengineering


As you read these words, 10,000 different nanomachines are at work inside your body. These are true nanomachines,Each one is a machine built to nanoscale specifications, with each atom precisely placed and connected to its neighbors.

Your body is arguably the most complex mechanism in the known universe, and most of the action occurs at the nanoscale level. These nanomachines work in concert to orchestrate the many processes of life—eating and breathing, growing and repairing, sensing danger and responding  to it, and reproducing.
Remarkably, many of these nanomachines will still perform their atomsized functions after they are isolated and purified, provided that the environment is not too harsh.They do not have to be sequestered safely inside cells. Each one is a self-sufficient molecular machine. Already, these nanomachines have been pressed into service. Natural digestive enzymes like pepsin and lysozyme are so tough that they can be added to laundry detergent to help digest away stains.
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Protein Folding Problem and Protein Structure Determination

Class lecture on Protein Folding Problem.
protein folding can be seen as a connection between the genome (sequence) and what the proteins actually do (their function).

Protein Folding problem is considered as a major hurdle must be crossed before bionanotechnology will have general applicability:
We must be able to predict the folded structure of a protein starting only with its chemical sequence.Without this ability, we will merely shadow evolution, poking and prodding existing proteins until they are changed into something that we want.

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Protein Folding Problem


Muhammad Zain Akram
MS Nanotechnology (2010-2012)
Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics and Microelectronics Engineering,
University of The Punjab.